LepiLED, scale bar 10 cm.

See original article (Brehm 2017): http://nl.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=11887

The new LepiLED can soon be ordered through the webshop on this website. You can order LepiLED directly via email to info@gunnarbrehm.de

General description of LepiLED

The lamp is designed for the attraction of nocturnal Lepidoptera and other insects, and it is efficient, relatively lightweight (480 g), handy, robust and water proof. It is recommended however to protect batteries from rain, e.g. by using plastic bags or containers. The lamp is especially suitable for working in remote areas, and the equipment can easily be transported in backpacks and on air planes.

LepiLED is made of anodized aluminium and a borosilicate glass cylinder. The cooling system is passive and the lamp is waterproof. Borosilicate glass (3 mm) is generally long-lived and very tough but not unbreakable. The emitted light (and radiation) is intense, and some people feel dazzled. When used in in gauze cylinders (‘light towers’), the dazzling is
less intense. Cylinders can be replaced, e.g., a matt cylider fully reduces the dazzling, but efficiency / emission is also reduced to some extent (see Brehm 2017).

The lamp can be operated with a voltage between 5 and 12 V DC. The lamp is equipped with a 2 meter cable with USB plug, optimized for the use with powerbank batteries. For the use with other batteries, adapters are required. Powerbank batteries can be recharged with solar panels.

Available equipment (all articles: end of May 2017)

- LepiLED (395 Euros) Article L1

- replacementborosilicate glass cylinder (13 Euros) Article C1
- replacement plexiglas cylinder clear (9 Euros) Article C2
- replacement plexiglas cylinder matt  (9 Euros) Article C3
- adapter USB – alligator clips (12 Euros) Article A1
- snap hook (2 Euros) Article S1

Batteries are not sold.

Technical specifications

LED lamp set with 8 Power LEDs (manufacturer: Nishia): 4 x 360 nm (UVA), 2 x 430 nm (blue), 1 x 520 nm (green), 1 cool white. Weight ca. 480 g. Standard: with borosilicate glasscylinder. Input current: 5–12 Volt DC. Power consumption ca. 7–8 W, depending on input voltage.

LepiLED is mercury free.


The lamp emits UV radiation that is invisible. Protect skin and eyes when the lamp is switched on and keep a reasonable distance (> 50 cm). Do not allow children to play with LepiLED.

Current Research

One out of more than 400 species or arctiid moths in southern Ecuador

My research focus since 1999 are macroecology, biogeography and systematics of species-rich moth communities in the Neotropics, particularly Ecuador and Costa Rica. I am employed as researcher at the Phyletisches Museum in Jena where I am also designing exhibitions and curating the entomology collection.

Focal groups are the species-rich moth clades of Geometridae (looper moths) and Erebidae-Arctiinae (tiger moths and woolly bears). An  important study area was situated in and around the Podocarpus National Park in southern Ecuador where moths were investigated along environmental gradients between ca. 1000 and 3000 m a.s.l. The ca. 1460 km2 large National Park is one of the biologically richest areas in the world.

More than 2000 species of Geometridae and 450 species of Erebidae-Arctiinae have been recorded in southern Ecuador so far - more than anywhere else in the world. COI Barcoding means that we have sampled a short fragment of the COI gene of the moths that is particularly well suited to distinguish species. We estimate that at least 50% of the species collected in the area are new to science. Many new species will hopefully be described in the next years, but this requires time and financial resources. If you would like to support this work, please contact info@gunnarbrehm.de for further information. It is possible that species will be named after you and your friends.

Within the last five years, my research was supported by Barcoding Canada, the Baseler Stiftung für Biologische Forschung (Barcoding Ecuador) as well as by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (three trips to Ecuador and funding for a new project in Peru).

In August and September 2016 we have started a new project in SE Peru (Cosnipata valley) along a nearly complete elevational gradient, together with Dr Matthias Nuß (Senckenberg Museum Dresden) and Prof. Gerardo Lamas and Juan Grados (Natural History Museum Lima) and Daniel Bolt (Switzerland). The first trip to the area has been extremely successful and the samples are now processed. Funding from the Ernst Abbe Stiftung (Jena) is acknowledged that will allow barcoding of ca. 3000 moth specimens.

A new elevational gradient study in the Peruvian Andes

Oxydia augusta – well camouflaged

A new project was launched in Peru in August / September 2016. The project was funded by DFG grants (establishment of an international cooperation). Participants: Matthias Nuss, Daniel Bolt, Gunnar Brehm, Juan Grados, Gerardo Lamas. Funding for the barcoding of ca. 3000 specimens comes from the Ernst Abbe Stiftung (Jena).

Project sketch (from grant proposal)

The aim of the project is the establishment of an international cooperation of the applicantswith our colleagues Prof. G. Lamas and J. Grados at the Zoological Museum in Lima. The cooperation is intended to foster the investigation of substantial parts of the extremely species rich moth communities in the wet tropical Andes – for the first time along an almost complete elevational gradient. We therefore plan a first workshop in a promising study area in South East Peru (Costñipata region) This will have an emphasis on practical aspects, with regard to the development of joint working and sampling methods during joint field work as well as to check the conditions in the field and the suitability of the area for the planned studies. While GB and MN are well familiar with other elevational gradients in the Neotropics (e.g. Bolivia, Ecuador and Costa Rica), our Peruvian counterparts have been working for many years in the Costñipata region. Our stay will mainly take place at the scientific stations of Wayqecha (3000 m) and Villa Carmen (500 m), followed by a stay of several days at the museum in Lima. Here, existing collections will be explored by material from the Costñipata region. The samples from the field as well as from the museum will mostly be exported, processed and analysed in Germany, and the material will be divided and returned later between the participating institutions, respectively. DNA Barcoding (COI gene) will play an important role for the accelerated delineation of species. About half a year later we will organise a second workshop in Dresden, Germany. Beside our Peruvian counterparts, we will invite leading entomologists, statisticians and other experts (altogether 10 participants). The aim of thesecond workshop will be the discussion of experiences gathered during fieldwork in Peru and of the first results. As an outcome, we aim to formulate two or three specific research proposals (insect diversity along the elevational gradient) to be submitted in 2017.


Upper montane rainforest in Ecuador

List of publications, state September 2017.

New manuscripts in preparation
- Brehm G, Bodner F, Strutzenberger F. Species descriptions of new Eois (Geometridae) from Ecuador
- Brehm G, Sihvonen P, Wahlberg N et al. A molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical genera of the Geometridae (Lepidoptera)


Publications at Google Scholar


Peer reviewed journal papers and book chapters

Submitted / in revision

Brehm G, Zeuss D, Colwell RK (submitted September 2017). Moth body size increases with elevation along a complete tropical elevational gradient for two hyperdiverse clades. Ecography

In press

Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Gottsberger B, Bodner F, Seifer, CL, Fiedler, K (in press) Diversification rates, host plant shifts and an updated molecular phylogeny of Andean Eois moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PlosOne

Brehm G (in press) Revision of the genus Callipia Guenée (1858) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) with the description of 15 new species. European Journal of Taxonomy.

Wallis CIB, Brehm G, Donoso DA, Fiedler K, Homeier J, Paulsch D, Süßenbach D, Tiede Y, Brandl R, Farwig N, Bendix J (in press) Predictability of species richness and turnover in a biodiversity hotspot using remote sensing based habitat. Ecological Indicators.

Brehm G, Knorre D von, Fischer MS (in press) JENA: The scientific zoological collections at the Phyletisches Museum in Jena – historical development and conservational challenges. In: Zoological collections of Germany (ed. L Beck). Springer

Puchert G, Brehm G (in press) JENA: The teaching collection at the Zoological Institute of the Jena University – its importance, value and conservational problems. In: Zoological collections of Germany (ed. L Beck). Springer


Brehm G (2017) A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps. Nota lepidopterologica 40: 87–108. DOI 10.3897/nl.40.11887 Open access at publisher

Beck J, McCain CM, Axmacher JC, Ashton L, Bärtschi F, Brehm G, Cizek O, Colwell RK, Fiedler K, Francois CL, Holloway JD, Intachat J, Kadlec T, Kitching R, Maunsell SM, Merckx T, Nakamura A, Odell E, Sang W, Toko P, Zamecnik J, Zou Y, Novotny V (online early) Elevational species richness gradients in a hyperdiverse insect taxon: a global meta-study on geometrid moths. Global Ecology and Biogeography 26: 412–424. doi: 10.1111/geb.12548 Link to publisher

Infusino M, Brehm G, Di Marco C, Scalercio S (2017) Assessing the efficiency of UV LEDs as light sources for macro-moth diversity sampling. European Journal of Entomology 114: 25–33. doi: 10.14411/eje.2017.004  Open access at publisher


Brehm G, Hebert PDN, Colwell RK Adams MO, Bodner F, Friedemann K, Möckel L,Fiedler K (2016) Turning up the heat at a hotspot: DNA barcodes reveal 80% more species of geometrid moths along an Andean elevational gradient. PlosOne 11: e0150327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150327 Open access at PlosOne

Colwell RK, Gotelli NJ, Ashton LE, Beck J, Brehm G, Fayle TM, Fiedler K, Forister ML, Kessler M, Kitching R, Klimes P, Kluge J, Longino JT, Maunsell SC, McCain CM, Moses J, Noben S, Sam K,  Same L, Shapiro AM, Wang X, Novotny V (2016) Midpoint attractors and species richness: Modeling the interaction between environmental drivers and geometric constraints. Ecology Letters 19: 1009–1022. doi:

Rodríguez-Castañeda G, Brehm G,  Fiedler K,  Dyer LA (2016) Ant predation on herbivores through a multitrophic lens: how effects of ants on plant herbivore defense and natural enemies vary along temperature gradients. Current Opinion in Insect Science 14: 73–80. doi:10.1016/j.cois.2016.02.001 Link to ResearchGate


Brehm G (2015) Three new species of Hagnagora Druce, 1885 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae) from Ecuador and Costa Rica and a concise revision of the genus. ZooKeys 537:131–156 Open access at publisher

Bodner F, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2015) Many caterpillars in a montane rain forest in Ecuador are not classical herbivores. Journal of Tropical Ecology 31: 473-476 (pdf here available one year after publication) Link to pdf

Brehm G, Fischer M, Gorb S, Kleinteich T, Kühn B, Neubert D, Pohl H, Wipfler B, Wurdinger S (2015) The unique sound production of the Death’s head Hawkmoth (Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited. Naturwissenschaften – The Science of Nature 102: 43 DOI 10.1007/s00114-015-1292-5. Contact me for pdf

Rodner E, Simon M, Brehm G, Pietsch S, Wägele JJ, Denzler J (2015) Fine-grained Recognition Datasets for Biodiversity Analysis, CVPR Workshop on Fine-grained Visual Classification (CVPR-W 2015) Link

Seifert C, Bodner F, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2015) Host plant associations and parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae). Journal of Insect Science 15: 119 Download pdf


Brehm G, Strutzenberger P, Fiedler K (2013) Phylogenetic diversity of geometrid moths decreases with elevation in the tropical Andes. Ecography 36: 1247-1253. doi 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00030.x Download pdf

Hünefeld F, Brehm G, Pohl H (2013) A simple "hands-off" apparatus to inflate eversible soft parts of the genitalia of small insect specimens. Microscope Research and Technique 76: 258-263. DOI: 10.1002/jemt.22161. Link to Publisher

Werner F, Jantz N, Krashevska V, Peters T, Behling H, Maraun M, Scheu S, Brehm G (2013) Climate Change: Effects on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Pp. 247-263 in: Ecosystem services, biodiversity and environmental change in a tropical mountain ecosystem of South Ecuador (ed by Bendix J et al.), Chapter 18, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-38137-9_18.


Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2012) DNA barcode sequencing from old type specimens as a tool in taxonomy: a case study in the diverse genus Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PlosOne 7:e49710. Download pdf

Bodner F. Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2012) Species richness and host specificity among caterpillar ensembles on shrubs in the Andes of southern Ecuador. Neotropical Entomology. Published online, doi: 10.1007/s13744-012-0066-4. Download pdf


Brehm G, Bodner F, Strutzenberger P, Hünefeld F, Fiedler K (2011) Neotropical Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): checklist, biogeography, diversity, and description patterns. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104: 1091-1107. Download pdf

Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2011) DNA barcoding based species delimitation increases species richness count of (Geometridae) moths in a well-studied tropical mountain forest by up to 50%. Insect Science 18: 349-62. doi 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01366.x Download pdf

Sihvonen P, Mutanen M, Kaila L, Brehm G, Hausmann A, Staude HS (2011) Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PlosOne 6: e20356. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020356  Download pdf  download supplementary material I material II

Larsen TH, Brehm G, Navarrete H, Franco P, Gomez H, Mena JL, Morales V, Argollo J, Blacutt K, Canhos V (2011) Range Shifts and Extinctions Driven by Climate Change in the Tropical Andes: Synthesis and Directions. Pp. 47-67 in: Herzog SK, Martínez R, Joergensen PM, Tiessen H (eds) Climate Change and biodiversity in the tropical Andes. Inter-American Institute of Global Change Research and Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, Sao José dos Campos, Brazil, and Paris, France. Download pdf

Aguirre LF, Anderson EP, Brehm G, Herzog SK, Joergensen PM, Kattan GH, Maldonado M, Martínez R, Mena JL, Pabón JD, Seimon A, Toledo C (2011) Phenology and nterspecific Ecological Interactions of Andean Biota in the Face of Climate Change. Pp. 68-92 in: Herzog SK, Martínez R, Joergensen PM, Tiessen H (eds) Climate Change and biodiversity in the tropical Andes. Inter-American Institute of Global Change Research and Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, Sao José dos Campos, Brazil, and Paris, France.

Beck J, Brehm G, Fiedler K. (2011) Links between the environment, abundance and diversity of Andean moths. Biotropica 43: 208-217. doi 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00689.x Download pdf

Laurance WF, Useche DC, Shoo, LP, Herzog SK, Kessler M, Escobar F, Brehm G, and 40 authors (2011) Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota. Biological Conservation 144: 548-557. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.010. Download pdf


Brehm G (2010) Diversity of geometrid moths in two Neotropical montane rain forests. In Bruijnzeel LA, Scatena FN, Hamilton LS (eds) Tropical montane cloud forests. Science for Conservation and Management. Cambridge University Press.    Download pdf

Bodner, F, Brehm G, Homeier, J., Strutzenberger P., Fiedler K (2010) Caterpillars and host plant records for 59 species of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) from a montane rainforest in southern Ecuador. Journal of Insect Science 2010; 10: 67.  Link to pdf

Rodríguez-Castañeda G, Dyer LA, Brehm G, Connahs H, Forkner RE, Walla TR (2010) Tropical forests are not flat: How mountains affect herbivore diversity. Ecology Letters 13: 1348-1357. Download pdf

Strutzenberger P, Bodner F, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2010). Molecular phylogeny of Eois: historical signal of wing patterns and host plant use in a group of species rich tropical moths. Zoologica Scripta 39: 609-620. Download pdf download supplementary material


Axmacher J, Brehm G, Hemp A, Tünte H, Lyaruu HVM, Müller-Hohenstein K, Fiedler K (2009) Determinants of diversity in afrotropical herbivorous insects (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): plant diversity, vegetation structure, or abiotic factors? Journal of Biogeography 36: 337-349. Download pdf

Brehm G (2009) Patterns of arctiid diversity. Pp. 223-232 in: Conner WE (ed) Tiger Moths and Woolly Bears: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution of the Arctiidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York. Download pdf (proof)


Colwell RK, Brehm G, Cardelús C, Gilman AC, Longino JT (2008) Global warming, elevational range shifts, and lowland biotic attrition in the wet tropics. Science 322: 258-261. Download pdf

Brehm G, Fiedler K, Häuser CL, Dalitz H (2008) Methodological challenges of a megadiverse ecosystem. Pp. 41-47 in: Beck E, Bendix J, Kottke I, Makeschin F, Mosandl R (eds) Gradients in a tropical mountain ecosystem of Ecuador. Springer, Ecological Studies 198. Download pdf

Brehm G, Homeier J, Fiedler K, Kottke I, Illig J, Nöske NM, Werner F, Breckle S-W (2008) Mountain rain forests in southern Ecuador as a hotspot of biodiversity - limited knowledge and diverging patterns. Pp. 15-24 in: Beck E, Bendix J, Kottke I, Makeschin F, Mosandl R (eds) Gradients in a tropical mountain ecosystem of Ecuador. Springer, Ecological Studies 198. Download pdf

Fiedler K, Brehm G, Hilt N, Süßenbach D, Häuser CL (2008) Variation of diversity patterns across moth families along a tropical altitudinal gradient. Pp. 167-180 in: Beck E, Bendix J, Kottke I, Makeschin F, Mosandl R (eds) Gradients in a tropical mountain ecosystem of Ecuador. Springer, Ecological Studies 198. Download pdf

Nöske NM, Hilt N, Werner FA, Brehm G, Fiedler K, Sipman HJM, Gradstein SR (2008) Disturbance effects on diversity of epiphytes and moths in a montane forest in Ecuador. Basic and Applied Ecology 9 :4-12. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2007.06.014 Download pdf


Brehm G (2007) Contrasting patterns of vertical stratification in two moth families in a Costa Rican lowland rain forest. Basic and Applied Ecology 8: 44-54. Download pdf

Brehm G, Colwell RK, Kluge J (2007) The role of environment and mid-domain effect on moth species richness along a tropical elevational gradient. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 205-219. Download pdf

Brehm G, Hartmann T, Willmott KR (2007) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and pharmacophagous Lepidoptera visitors of Prestonia amabilis (Apocynaceae) in a montane rain forest in Ecuador. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 94: 465-475. Download pdf

Fiedler K, Brehm G, Hilt N, Süssenbach D, Onore G, Bartsch D, Racheli L, Häuser CL (2007) Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae, Hedylidae, Pyraloidea, Sphingidae,  Saturniidae, and Uraniidae (moths) - Checklist Reserva Biológica San Francisco (Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, S. Ecuador). Ecotropical Monographs 4: 155-217. Download pdf

Fiedler K, Hilt N, Brehm G, Schulze CH (2007) Moths at tropical forest margins - how mega-diverse insect assemblages respond to forest disturbance and recovery. Pp. 39-60 in: Tscharntke T, Leuschner C, Zeller M, Guhardja E, Bidin A (eds) The stability of tropical rainforest margins, linking ecological, economic and social constraints of land use and conservation. Springer, Berlin. Download pdf

Häuser CL, Fiedler K, Bartsch D, Brehm G, Kling M, Süssenbach D, Onore G (2007) Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) - Checklist Reserva Biológica San Francisco (Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, S. Ecuador). Ecotropical Monographs 4: 145-154. Download pdf

Hilt N, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2007) Temporal dynamics of rich moth ensembles in the montane forest zone in southern Ecuador. Biotropica 39: 94-104. Download pdf


Brehm G, Axmacher JC (2006) A comparison of manual and automatic moth sampling methods (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae) in a rain forest in Costa Rica. Environmental Entomology 35: 754-764. Download pdf

Hilt N, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2006) Diversity and ensemble composition of geometrid moths along a successional gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 155-166. Download pdf


Brehm G (2005) A revision of the Acrotomodes clota Druce, 1900 species-group (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 115: 75-80. Download pdf

Brehm G, Fiedler K (2005) Diversity and community structure of geometrid moths of disturbed habitat in a montane area in the Ecuadorian Andes. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 38: 1-14. Download pdf

Brehm G, Pitkin LM, Hilt N, Fiedler K (2005) Tropical Andean rain forests are a global diversity hotspot of geometrid moths. Journal of Biogeography 32: 1621-1627. Download pdf

Brehm G, Sullivan B (2005) Unusual flight activity of a new species of Hagnagora Druce, 1885 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) from Costa Rica. Entomologische Zeitschrift 115: 256-260. Download pdf


Axmacher JC, Holtmann G, Scheuermann L, Brehm G, Müller-Hohenstein K, Fiedler K (2004) Diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) along an Afrotropical elevational rainforest transect. Diversity and Distributions 10: 293-302. Download pdf

Brehm G (2004) A new species of Oenoptila Warren, 1895 from the Andes (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 114: 278-280. Download pdf

Brehm G, Fiedler, K. (2004) Bergmann's rule does not apply to geometrid moths along an elevational gradient in an Andean montane rainforest. Global Ecology and Biogeography 13: 7-14. Download pdf

Brehm G, Fiedler K (2004) Ordinating tropical moth ensembles from an elevational gradient: a comparison of common methods. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 165-172. Download pdf


Brehm G, Fiedler, K. (2003) Faunal composition of geometrid moths changes with altitude in an Andean montane rain forest. Journal of Biogeography 30: 431-440. Download pdf

Brehm G, Homeier J, Fiedler K. (2003) Beta diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in an Andean montane rainforest. Diversity and Distributions 9: 351-366. Download pdf

Brehm G, Süssenbach D, Fiedler K (2003) Unique elevational diversity patterns of geometrid moths in an Andean montane rainforest. Ecography 26: 456-466. Download pdf



Other publications

Brehm G, Fiedler K, Gaona FP (in press) Andean rainforests: studying the global hotspot of Lepidopteran diversity. Book by research group Ecuador, Loja.

Christoph A, Elschner E, Brehm G (2015) (eds) Zoogeographie. Die Welt der Tiere in den Sammlungen des Phyletischen Museums Jena. Laborberichte 8.

Brehm G, Fischer MS (2014) Phyletisches Museum im Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie. pp. 209–220 in: Thüringer Natur-Schätze (R Werneburg, E May eds). Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg.

Brehm G (2013) Biologische Invasionen – Wachsende Probleme mit der Globalisierung. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 66: 117–123.

Hoßfeld U, Brehm G (2012) Darwins Finken: „Alle diese Spezies sind diesem Archipel eigentümlich“. Praxis der Naturwissenschaft – Biologie in unserer Schule 61: 45–48. 

Brehm G, Hoßfeld U (2011) Von bunt zu braun – Bärenspinner (Utetheisa spp.) der Galápagos-Inseln. Praxis der Naturwissenschaft – Biologie in unserer Schule 60: 47–49.

Fischer MS, Brehm G, Hoßfeld U (2008) Das Phyletische Museum in Jena. Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem Museum.

Brehm G, Schrumpf M (2006) Seidenschwänze fressen Schnee. Ornithologische Mitteilungen 58: 261-262. Download pdf

Brehm G (2003) Host-plant records and illustrations of the larvae of 19 geometrid moth species from a montane rainforest in Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 24: 29-34. Download pdf

Brehm G (2002) Diversity of geometrid moths in a montane rainforest in Ecuador. Dissertation, Universität Bayreuth. Link to pdf

Brehm G, Brehm K (1997) Anmerkungen zur Gefährdung des Mosel-Apollos (Parnassius apollo vinningensis Stichel, 1899) durch den Straßenverkehr - Wie groß sind die Populationen an der Mosel tatsächlich? (Lep., Papilionidae). Melanargia 9: 32-37.

Eitschberger U, Reinhard R, Steiniger H, Brehm G (1991) Wanderfalter in Europa. Zugleich Aufruf für eine internationale Zusammenarbeit an der Erforschung des Wanderphänomens bei den Insekten. Atalanta 22: 1-67, Tafeln I-XVI.

Brehm G (1989) Silage als neues Umweltproblem. Die Heimat 96: 202-210.