insects & light

Current Research

My research interests are focused on macroecology, biogeography and systematics of species-rich moth communities. I am methodologically interested in light trapping with UV lamps and (UV) photography.

I am curating the insect collections at the Phyletisches Museum in Jena where I am also designing exhibitions. Since 2012, I am voluntarily managing invasive plant species in the region and am testing appropriate methods.

My model groups are the species-rich moth clades of Geometridae (looper moths) and Arctiinae (tiger moths and woolly bears). The work has a focus on Central and South America, where thousands of species occur, many of them still undescribed. I carried out field studies mainly in Ecuador, Peru and Costa Rica (see papers below). All collected material is carefully prepared and permanently stored in the museum where it is available for further study, for examle on impacts of global heating. Some important projects are shortly presented in the following.

My model groups are the species-rich moth clades of Geometridae (looper moths) and Arctiinae (tiger moths and woolly bears). The work has a focus on Central and South America, where thousands of species occur, many of them still undescribed. I carried out field studies mainly in Ecuador, Peru and Costa Rica (see papers below). All collected material is carefully prepared and permanently stored in the museum where it is available for further study, for examle on impacts of global heating. Some important projects are shortly presented in the following.

A new project on pollination networks of Arctiinae and Sphingidae moths, bees and bats in NW Ecuador in collboration with Sara Leonhardt and Alex Keller in a DFG research unit will start in 2021. See reassembly website with an announcement of a position for a PhD student - deadline 1 July 2021.

LED lamps, traps and AI

We are systematically comparing LED lamps in field studies in Jena, i.e. UV lamps against mixed radiation lamps, and lamps that differ in radiation flux. Julia Niermann wrote her Bachelor thesis (2020), and another project is carried out with Rachit Singh BSc and Michael Weingardt BSc. Our study area is the conservation area Jenzig where we carry out faunistic studies. Julia will soon submit a paper with the results, showing that microhabitat can have a larger influence on the samples than the lamp type. We build up on a large behavioural experiment with more than 6000 moth individuals (95 species) carried out in the last two years. We showed that short wave radiation, in particular UV and blue radiation is most attractive for the insects (published in Insect Conservation and Diversity in March 2021). We conclude that outdoor lighting should have no UV radiation (as still found in metal halide lamps) and very low proportions of blue radiation (e.g. LED with low colour temperatures). From the viewpoint of an insect, red light is ideal.
In 2021, new experiments have started that explore different trap designs, i.e. those that have vanes or not, colour of the material etc. For the AMMOD project, I develop a UV lamp setup that allows standardized photography of moths. Paul Bodesheim and colleagues will use AI to identify moth species. A prototype of a camera trap is now successfully working in an orchard meadow in Jena untill autumn 2021.

Mongolia project

Moth communities were assessed along a latitudinal gradident in Mongolia in order to explore the impacts of grazing on biodiversity. The project is carried out by Khishigdelger Enkhtur as part of her dissertation at the university of Bayreuth. All species are identified in a combined approach of morphological studies and COI barcoding. Barcoded specimens are fully documented and stored in the collections of the Phyletisches Museum. A paper submitted to Scientfic Reports was just accepted in July '21, another paper will be submitted to Ecological Indicators.

Eois project

Eois is an exceptionally diverse genus of looper moths (Geometridae). So far, around 210 species were described in the Neotropical region, but the actual species number is likely to be far more than 1000 species – so most of them still have to be described scientfically. This is a long-term taxonomic project. Similar projects were carried out and published for Callipia and Hagnagora. From field work in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Peru thousands of individuals are available for studies in the collections in Jena. I am currently sorting new material from SE Peru, so far around 150 species with different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs).

Phylogeny of geometrid moths

In 2019, Leidys Murillo-Ramos et al. published an extensive study with 2000 terminal taxa of geometrid moths – by far the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of the group and one of the largest in Lepidoptera. Further detailed studies on New World Geometridae and on the subfamily Sterrhinae were published by us shortly after this. Due to a grant from the Finnish Academy of Sciences to Pasi Sihvonen (Helsinki), the project will be further extended towards an even and global coverage with the aim to include all known Geometridae genera in the years 2020 to 2023. I will continue the excellent collaboration with Pasi, Leidys, Niklas Wahlberg (Lund) and many others. Leidys as first author just published another paper about the new geometrid subfamily Epidesmiiinae (see below).

2021: New elevational gradient study in Peru

A new DFG project Diversity and key traits of moths along a complete elevational gradient in the Peruvian Andes will start in late 2021! We now seek a doctorate student with skills in entomology, field work, and statistics - please write an email if you're interested. The project will be carried out together with Marcell Peters, Alexander Keller and Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter from Würzburg.  Juan Grados and Gerardo Lamas are our counterparts in Peru. A new ANDIV website will be online soon - with the official announcement of the PhD position.

The major objective of the project bundle is to contribute to the understanding of the broad scale drivers of holometabolous insects and their microbiomes. Lepidoptera are among the “big four” clades of holometabolous insects, and they play key roles as pollinators, defoliators and prey, yet factors determining their diversity in the tropics are poorly understood. Elevational gradients offer “natural experiments” for diversity studies, and they are far less influenced by large-scale biogeographic patterns than latitudinal gradients. The species-rich Lepidoptera clades Geometridae and Arctiinae are selected as model groups because they are phylogenetically unrelated and that differ in many traits such as body size and colouration.

For the first time, moths will be sampled quantitatively (attraction to light) along a nearly complete elevational gradient in the tropical Andes. A research collection with ca. 30,000 moth specimens and a DNA-barcode library with ca. 3,500 species will be established that will become available for long-term research. We will use UV photography and automated segmentation software for image analysis and determination of morphometric traits for all species. The data set will allowus to analyse diversity patterns and to investigate changes in selected functional traits of the moths along the elevation gradient.


List, state October 2021
Publications at Google Scholar

Peer reviewed papers

Submitted and in preparation

Enkhtur K, Brehm G, Boldgiv B, Pfeiffer M (reviewed version submitted) Effects of grazing on macro-moth assemblages in two different biomes in Mongolia. Ecological Indicators.

Niermann J, Brehm G (submitted) The number of sampled moths is more affected by microhabitat choice than by UV lamp type in a grassland habitat. European Journal of Entomology.

Ghanavi HR, Chazot N, Sanmartín I, Murillo-Ramos L, Duchêne S, Sihvonen P, Brehm G, Wahlberg N (submitted) Region-specific diversification dynamics and biogeographic history of one of the most diversefamilies of insects. Systematic Biology.

Gaona FP, Brehm G, FiedlerK, Espinosa CI (in preparation) How seasonality affects geometrid moth diversity in a dry forest in southwestern Ecuador

Staude H, Sihvonen P, Brehm G, Hausmann A (in preparation) Seasonal shift in flight times and a shift todiurnal flight in two Scopula species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Sterrhinae)


Fiedler K Brehm G (2021) Aposematic coloration of moths decreases strongly along an elevational gradient in the Andes. Insects 12(10), 903.

Murillo-Ramos L, Sihvonen P, Brehm G, Ríos-Malaver IC, Wahlberg N (submitted) A database and checklist of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera) from Colombia. Biodiversity Data Journal 9: e68693.

Enkhtur K, Brehm G, Boldgiv B, Pfeiffer M (2021) Alpha and beta diversity of moths along a latitudinal gradient in the Eastern Palearctic. Scientific Reports 11: 15018.

Gaona FP, Iñiguez-Armijos C, Brehm G, Fiedler K, Espinosa CI (online early) Drastic loss of insects (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in urban landscapes in a tropical biodiversity hotspot Journal of Insect Conservation 25: 395–405.

Brehm G, Niermann J, Jaimes Nino LM, Enseling D, Jüstel T, Fiedler K (2021) Moths are strongly attracted to ultraviolet and blue radiation. Insect Conservation and Diversity 14: 188–198.

Murillo-Ramos L, Sihvonen P, Friedich E, Williams S, Brehm G, Wahlberg N (2021) A morphological appraisal of the new subfamily Epidesmiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) with an overview of all geometrid subfamilies. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (published online).


Rabl D, Alonso-Rodriguez AM, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2020) Trait variation in moths mirror small-scaled ecological gradients in a tropical landscape. Insects 1: 612; doi:10.3390/insects11090612

Sihvonen P, Murillo-Ramos L, Brehm G, Staude H, Wahlberg N (2020) Molecular phylogeny of Sterrhinae moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): towards a global classification. Systematic Entomology 45: 606-634.


Brehm G, Murillo-Ramos L, Sihvonen P, Hausmann A, Schmidt BC, Õunap E, Bolt D, Bodner F, Moser A, Mörtter R, Lindt A, Parra LE, Wahlberg N (2019) New World geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, taxonomic updates and description of 11 new tribes. Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny  77 (3): 457–486.

Brehm G, Zeuss D, Colwell RK (2019) Moth body size increases with elevation along a complete tropical elevational gradient for two hyperdiverse clades. Ecography 42: 632–642.

Jaimes Nino LM, Mörtter R, Brehm G (2019) Diversity and trait patterns of moths at the edge of an Amazonian rainforest. Journal of Insect Conservation 23: 751–763.

Murillo-Ramos L, Brehm G, Sihvonen P, Hausmann A, Holm S, Ghanavi H, Õunap E, Truuverk A, Staude HS, Friedrich E, TammaruT, Wahlberg N (2019). A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) with a focus on enigmatic small subfamilies. PeerJ 7:e7386.

Rabl D, Gottsberger B, Brehm G, Hofhansl F, Fiedler K (2019) Moth assemblages in Costa Rica rain forest mirror small‐scale topographic heterogeneity. Biotropica.


Brehm G (2018) Revision of the genus Callipia Guenée (1858) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) with the description of 15 new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 404: 1–54.

Brehm G, Knorre D von, Fischer MS (2018) JENA: The scientific zoological collections at the Phyletisches Museum in Jena – historical development and conservational challenges. In: Zoological collections of Germany (ed. L Beck). Springer

Kawahara A, Plotkin D, Forero D, Storer C, St Laurent R, Espeland M, Dexter K, Pierce N, Breinholt J, Brehm G, Lohman D, Toussaint E, Vargas S (2018) Phylogenetics of moth-like butterflies (Papilionoidea: Hedylidae) based on a new 13-locus target capture probe set. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 127: 600–605.

Puchert G, Brehm G (2018) JENA: The teaching collection at the Zoological Institute of the Jena University – its importance, value and conservational problems. In: Zoological collections of Germany (ed. L Beck). Springer

Wallis CIB, Brehm G, Donoso DA, Fiedler K, Homeier J, Paulsch D, Süßenbach D, Tiede Y, Brandl R, Farwig N, Bendix J (2018) Remote sensing improves prediction of tropical montane species diversity but performance differs among taxa. Ecological Indicators 83: 538-549.


Beck J, McCain CM, Axmacher JC, Ashton L, Bärtschi F, Brehm G, Cizek O, Colwell RK, Fiedler K, Francois CL, Holloway JD, Intachat J, Kadlec T, Kitching R, Maunsell SM, Merckx T, Nakamura A, Odell E, Sang W, Toko P, Zamecnik J, Zou Y, Novotny V (2017) Elevational species richness gradients in a hyperdiverse insect taxon: a global meta-study on geometrid moths. Global Ecology and Biogeography 26: 412–424.

Brehm G (2017) A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps. Nota lepidopterologica 40: 87–108.

Infusino M, Brehm G, Di Marco C, Scalercio S (2017) Assessing the efficiency of UV LEDs as light sources for macro-moth diversity sampling. European Journal of Entomology 114:25–33.

Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Gottsberger B, Bodner F, Seifert, CL, Fiedler, K (2017) Diversification rates, host plant shifts and an updated molecular phylogeny of Andean Eois moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PlosOne 12: e018843.


Brehm G, Hebert PDN, Colwell RK Adams MO, Bodner F, Friedemann K, Möckel L,Fiedler K (2016) Turning up the heat at a hotspot: DNA barcodes reveal 80% more species of geometrid moths along an Andean elevational gradient. PlosOne 11: e0150327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150327

Colwell RK, Gotelli NJ, Ashton LE, Beck J, Brehm G, Fayle TM, Fiedler K, Forister ML, Kessler M, Kitching R, Klimes P, Kluge J, Longino JT, Maunsell SC, McCain CM, Moses J, Noben S, Sam K,  Same L, Shapiro AM, Wang X, Novotny V (2016) Midpoint attractors and species richness: Modeling the interaction between environmental drivers and geometric constraints. Ecology Letters 19: 1009–1022. doi: 10.1111/ele.12640

Rodríguez-Castañeda G, Brehm G,  Fiedler K,  Dyer LA (2016) Ant predation on herbivores through a multitrophic lens: how effects of ants on plant herbivore defense and natural enemies vary along temperature gradients. Current Opinion in Insect Science 14: 73–80. doi:10.1016/j.cois.2016.02.001 Link to ResearchGate

Zenker MM, Wahlberg N, Brehm G, Teston JA, Przybylowicz L, Pie RP, Freitas VL (2016) Systematics and origin of moths in the subfamily Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) in the Neotropical region. Zoologica Scripta 46: 348–362. doi: 10.1111/zsc.12202 Link to pdf (proof)


Brehm G (2015) Three new species of Hagnagora Druce, 1885 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae) from Ecuador and Costa Rica and a concise revision of the genus. ZooKeys 537:131–156 Open access at publisher

Bodner F, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2015) Many caterpillars in a montane rain forest in Ecuador are not classical herbivores. Journal of Tropical Ecology 31: 473-476 (pdf here available one year after publication) Link to pdf

Brehm G, Fischer M, Gorb S, Kleinteich T, Kühn B, Neubert D, Pohl H, Wipfler B, Wurdinger S (2015) The unique sound production of the Death’s head Hawkmoth (Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited. Naturwissenschaften – The Science of Nature 102: 43 DOI 10.1007/s00114-015-1292-5. Contact me for pdf

Rodner E, Simon M, Brehm G, Pietsch S, Wägele JJ, Denzler J (2015) Fine-grained Recognition Datasets for Biodiversity Analysis, CVPR Workshop on Fine-grained Visual Classification (CVPR-W 2015) Link

Seifert C, Bodner F, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2015) Host plant associations and parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae). Journal of Insect Science 15: 119 Download pdf


Brehm G, Strutzenberger P, Fiedler K (2013) Phylogenetic diversity of geometrid moths decreases with elevation in the tropical Andes. Ecography 36: 1247-1253. doi 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00030.x Download pdf

Hünefeld F, Brehm G, Pohl H (2013) A simple "hands-off" apparatus to inflate eversible soft parts of the genitalia of small insect specimens. Microscope Research and Technique 76: 258-263. DOI: 10.1002/jemt.22161. Link to Publisher

Werner F, Jantz N, Krashevska V, Peters T, Behling H, Maraun M, Scheu S, Brehm G (2013) Climate Change: Effects on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Pp. 247-263 in: Ecosystem services, biodiversity and environmental change in a tropical mountain ecosystem of South Ecuador (ed by Bendix J et al.), Chapter 18, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-38137-9_18.


Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2012) DNA barcode sequencing from old type specimens as a tool in taxonomy: a case study in the diverse genus Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PlosOne 7:e49710. Download pdf

Bodner F, Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2012) Species richness and host specificity among caterpillar ensembles on shrubs in the Andes of southern Ecuador. Neotropical Entomology. Published online, doi: 10.1007/s13744-012-0066-4. Download pdf


Brehm G, Bodner F, Strutzenberger P, Hünefeld F, Fiedler K (2011) Neotropical Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): checklist, biogeography, diversity, and description patterns. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104: 1091-1107. Download pdf

Strutzenberger P, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2011) DNA barcoding based species delimitation increases species richness count of (Geometridae) moths in a well-studied tropical mountain forest by up to 50%. Insect Science 18: 349-62. doi 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01366.x Download pdf

Sihvonen P, Mutanen M, Kaila L, Brehm G, Hausmann A, Staude HS (2011) Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PlosOne 6: e20356. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020356  Download pdf download supplementary material I material II

Larsen TH, Brehm G, Navarrete H, Franco P, Gomez H, Mena JL, Morales V, Argollo J, Blacutt K, Canhos V (2011) Range Shifts and Extinctions Driven by Climate Change in the Tropical Andes: Synthesis and Directions. Pp. 47-67 in: Herzog SK, Martínez R, Joergensen PM, Tiessen H (eds) Climate Change and biodiversity in the tropical Andes. Inter-American Institute of Global Change Research and Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, Sao José dos Campos, Brazil, and Paris, France. Download pdf

Aguirre LF, Anderson EP, Brehm G, Herzog SK, Joergensen PM, Kattan GH, Maldonado M, Martínez R, Mena JL, Pabón JD, Seimon A, Toledo C (2011) Phenology and nterspecific Ecological Interactions of Andean Biota in the Face of Climate Change. Pp. 68-92 in: Herzog SK, Martínez R, Joergensen PM, Tiessen H (eds) Climate Change and biodiversity in the tropical Andes. Inter-American Institute of Global Change Research and Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, Sao José dos Campos, Brazil, and Paris, France.

Beck J, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2011) Links between the environment, abundance and diversity of Andean moths. Biotropica 43: 208-217. doi 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00689.x Download pdf

Laurance WF, Useche DC, Shoo, LP, Herzog SK, Kessler M, Escobar F, Brehm G, and 40 authors (2011) Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota. Biological Conservation 144: 548-557. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.010. Download pdf


Brehm G (2010) Diversity of geometrid moths in two Neotropical montane rain forests. In Bruijnzeel LA, Scatena FN, Hamilton LS (eds) Tropical montane cloud forests. Science for Conservation and Management. Cambridge University Press.    Download pdf

Bodner F, Brehm G, Homeier J, Strutzenberger P, Fiedler K (2010) Caterpillars and host plant records for 59 species of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) from a montane rainforest in southern Ecuador. Journal of Insect Science 2010; 10: 67.  Link to pdf

Rodríguez-Castañeda G, Dyer LA, Brehm G, Connahs H, Forkner RE, Walla TR (2010) Tropical forests are not flat: How mountains affect herbivore diversity. Ecology Letters 13: 1348-1357. Download pdf

Strutzenberger P, Bodner F, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2010). Molecular phylogeny of Eois: historical signal of wing patterns and host plant use in a group of species rich tropical moths. Zoologica Scripta 39: 609-620. Download pdf download supplementary material


Axmacher J, Brehm G, Hemp A, Tünte H, Lyaruu HVM, Müller-Hohenstein K, Fiedler K (2009) Determinants of diversity in afrotropical herbivorous insects (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): plant diversity, vegetation structure, or abiotic factors? Journal of Biogeography 36: 337-349. Download pdf

Brehm G (2009) Patterns of arctiid diversity. Pp. 223-232 in: Conner WE (ed) Tiger Moths and Woolly Bears: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution of the Arctiidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York. Download pdf (proof)


Colwell RK, Brehm G, Cardelús C, Gilman AC, Longino JT (2008) Global warming, elevational range shifts, and lowland biotic attrition in the wet tropics. Science 322: 258-261. Download pdf

Brehm G, Fiedler K, Häuser CL, Dalitz H (2008) Methodological challenges of a megadiverse ecosystem. Pp. 41-47 in: Beck E, Bendix J, Kottke I, Makeschin F, Mosandl R (eds) Gradients in a tropical mountain ecosystem of Ecuador. Springer, Ecological Studies 198. Download pdf

Brehm G, Homeier J, Fiedler K, Kottke I, Illig J, Nöske NM, Werner F, Breckle S-W (2008) Mountain rain forests in southern Ecuador as a hotspot of biodiversity - limited knowledge and diverging patterns. Pp. 15-24 in: Beck E, Bendix J, Kottke I, Makeschin F, Mosandl R (eds) Gradients in a tropical mountain ecosystem of Ecuador. Springer, Ecological Studies 198. Download pdf

Fiedler K, Brehm G, Hilt N, Süßenbach D, Häuser CL (2008) Variation of diversity patterns across moth families along a tropical altitudinal gradient. Pp. 167-180 in: Beck E, Bendix J, Kottke I, Makeschin F, Mosandl R (eds) Gradients in a tropical mountain ecosystem of Ecuador. Springer, Ecological Studies 198. Download pdf

Nöske NM, Hilt N, Werner FA, Brehm G, Fiedler K, Sipman HJM, Gradstein SR (2008) Disturbance effects on diversity of epiphytes and moths in a montane forest in Ecuador. Basic and Applied Ecology 9 :4-12. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2007.06.014 Download pdf


Brehm G (2007) Contrasting patterns of vertical stratification in two moth families in a Costa Rican lowland rain forest. Basic and Applied Ecology 8: 44-54. Download pdf

Brehm G, Colwell RK, Kluge J (2007) The role of environment and mid-domain effect on moth species richness along a tropical elevational gradient. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 205-219. Download pdf

Brehm G, Hartmann T, Willmott KR (2007) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and pharmacophagous Lepidoptera visitors of Prestonia amabilis (Apocynaceae) in a montane rain forest in Ecuador. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 94: 465-475. Download pdf

Fiedler K, Brehm G, Hilt N, Süssenbach D, Onore G, Bartsch D, Racheli L, Häuser CL (2007) Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae, Hedylidae, Pyraloidea, Sphingidae,  Saturniidae, and Uraniidae (moths) - Checklist Reserva Biológica San Francisco (Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, S. Ecuador). Ecotropical Monographs 4: 155-217. Download pdf

Fiedler K, Hilt N, Brehm G, Schulze CH (2007) Moths at tropical forest margins - how mega-diverse insect assemblages respond to forest disturbance and recovery. Pp. 39-60 in: Tscharntke T, Leuschner C, Zeller M, Guhardja E, Bidin A (eds) The stability of tropical rainforest margins, linking ecological, economic and social constraints of land use and conservation. Springer, Berlin. Download pdf

Häuser CL, Fiedler K, Bartsch D, Brehm G, Kling M, Süssenbach D, Onore G (2007) Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) - Checklist Reserva Biológica San Francisco (Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, S. Ecuador). Ecotropical Monographs 4: 145-154. Download pdf

Hilt N, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2007) Temporal dynamics of rich moth ensembles in the montane forest zone in southern Ecuador. Biotropica 39: 94-104. Download pdf


Brehm G, Axmacher JC (2006) A comparison of manual and automatic moth sampling methods (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae) in a rain forest in Costa Rica. Environmental Entomology 35: 754-764. Download pdf

Hilt N, Brehm G, Fiedler K (2006) Diversity and ensemble composition of geometrid moths along a successional gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 155-166. Download pdf


Brehm G (2005) A revision of the Acrotomodes clota Druce, 1900 species-group (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 115: 75-80. Download pdf

Brehm G, Fiedler K (2005) Diversity and community structure of geometrid moths of disturbed habitat in a montane area in the Ecuadorian Andes. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 38: 1-14. Download pdf

Brehm G, Pitkin LM, Hilt N, Fiedler K (2005) Tropical Andean rain forests are a global diversity hotspot of geometrid moths. Journal of Biogeography 32: 1621-1627. Download pdf

Brehm G, Sullivan B (2005) Unusual flight activity of a new species of Hagnagora Druce, 1885 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) from Costa Rica. Entomologische Zeitschrift 115: 256-260. Download pdf


Axmacher JC, Holtmann G, Scheuermann L, Brehm G, Müller-Hohenstein K, Fiedler K (2004) Diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) along an Afrotropical elevational rainforest transect. Diversity and Distributions 10: 293-302. Download pdf

Brehm G (2004) A new species of Oenoptila Warren, 1895 from the Andes (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 114: 278-280. Download pdf

Brehm G, Fiedler, K. (2004) Bergmann's rule does not apply to geometrid moths along an elevational gradient in an Andean montane rainforest. Global Ecology and Biogeography 13: 7-14. Download pdf

Brehm G, Fiedler K (2004) Ordinating tropical moth ensembles from an elevational gradient: a comparison of common methods. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 165-172. Download pdf


Brehm G, Fiedler, K. (2003) Faunal composition of geometrid moths changes with altitude in an Andean montane rain forest. Journal of Biogeography 30: 431-440. Download pdf

Brehm G, Homeier J, Fiedler K. (2003) Beta diversity of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in an Andean montane rainforest. Diversity and Distributions 9: 351-366. Download pdf

Brehm G, Süssenbach D, Fiedler K (2003) Unique elevational diversity patterns of geometrid moths in an Andean montane rainforest. Ecography 26: 456-466. Download pdf

Publications without peer review

Niermann J, Brehm G (2019) Zweijährige Erfassung von nachtaktiven Großschmetterlingen an Ködern an einem Auwald-Fragment an der Saale in Jena. Mitteilungen des Thüringer Entomologenverbandes e. V. 26: 54-63

Brehm G (2017) Migration, Ausbreitung und Verschleppung: Auswirkungen auf biologische Vielfalt. Pp. 153–163 in Tittel C (ed) Migration der Dinge. Kulturtransfer und Wissenszirkulation in Zeitaltern der Globalisierung. Schriften des Internationalen Kollegs für Kulturtechnikforschung und Medienphilosophie 31, Weimar. ISBN 978-3-95773-243-9

Brehm G (2017) Prologue, subfamily and phylogeny texts. Pages 6-7,31,32-34,50,75,83,97,139,171,203,209,229,248,261 in Dett A (ed) Moths of Costa Rica's rainforest. Benteli, Salenstein. ISBN 978-3-7165-1840-3

Brehm G (2016) Erforschung biologischer Vielfalt in Neotropischen Brennpunkten der Vielfalt. Nachrichtenblatt bayerischer Entomologen 65: 99–102. ISSN 0027-7452

Brehm G, Gaona FP, Fiedler K (2016) Andean rainforests: studying the global hotspot of Lepidopteran diversity. Pp 110–115 in Bogner FX, Bendix J, Beck E (eds) Biodiversity Hotspot Tropical Mountain Rainforest. NCI Foundation, Loja, Ecuador. ISBN 978-9942-14-583-3

Brehm G, Fiedler K (2016) Lepidoptera. Pp 464–496 in Schaefer M (ed) Brohmer, Fauna von Deutschland. 24. Aufl, Quelle & Mayer, Wiebelsheim. ISBN 978-3-494-01668-9

Brehm G (2015) Die Zoologischen Sammlungen am Phyletischen Museum. Pp. 25–30 in Christoph A, Brehm G, Elschner E (eds) Zoogeographie. Die Welt der Tiere in den Sammlungen des Phyletischen Museums Jena. Laborberichte 8 (Siegel S, Klinger K eds) Verlag und Datenbank für Geisteswissenschaften, Weimar. ISBN 978-3-89739-842-9.

Brehm G, Waechter R (2015) Wie stellt man einen Farbkatalog für Peter Halley her? / How to make a catalogue for Peter Halley. Pp. 92-96 in Fischer MS, Happe B, Siegel S (eds) Peter Halley – Prisons. ISBN 978-3-9806431-7-7

Brehm G, Fischer MS (2014) Phyletisches Museum im Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie. Pp 209–220 in Werneburg R, May R (eds) Thüringer Natur-Schätze. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg. ISBN 978-3-7954-2729-0

Brehm G (2013) Biologische Invasionen – Wachsende Probleme mit der Globalisierung. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 66: 117–123

Hoßfeld U, Brehm G (2012) Darwins Finken: „Alle diese Spezies sind diesem Archipel eigentümlich“. Praxis der Naturwissenschaft – Biologie in unserer Schule 61: 45–48

Brehm G, Hoßfeld U (2011) Von bunt zu braun – Bärenspinner (Utetheisa spp.) der Galápagos-Inseln. Praxis der Naturwissenschaft – Biologie in unserer Schule 60: 47–49

Fischer MS, Brehm G, Hoßfeld U (2008) Das Phyletische Museum in Jena. Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem Museum. ISBN 978-3-9811758-3-7

Brehm G, Schrumpf M (2006) Seidenschwänze fressen Schnee. Ornithologische Mitteilungen 58: 261-262. Runterlad pdf

Brehm G (2003) Host-plant records and illustrations of the larvae of 19 geometrid moth species from a montane rainforest in Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 24: 29-34. Runterlad pdf

Brehm G (2002) Diversity of geometrid moths in a montane rainforest in Ecuador. Dissertation, Universität Bayreuth. Link zum pdf

Brehm G, Brehm K (1997) Anmerkungen zur Gefährdung des Mosel-Apollos (Parnassius apollo vinningensis Stichel, 1899) durch den Straßenverkehr - Wie groß sind die Populationen an der Mosel tatsächlich? (Lep., Papilionidae). Melanargia 9: 32-37.

Eitschberger U, Reinhard R, Steiniger H, Brehm G (1991) Wanderfalter in Europa. Zugleich Aufruf für eine internationale Zusammenarbeit an der Erforschung des Wanderphänomens bei den Insekten. Atalanta 22: 1-67, Tafeln I-XVI.

Brehm G (1989) Silage als neues Umweltproblem. Die Heimat 96: 202-210.

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